Skip to main content

Citation Styles

Citing tips and tricks from several styles.

APA Style

What is APA Style? 

APA Style comes from a publication manual designed by the American Psychological Association. APA style is used by many different disciplines and majors, especially in the social sciences. 

In-Text Citation 

APA uses parenthetical in-text citation styles that generally use the author's last name and year. The in-text citation should offer the reader a clear link to the works cited page where they can find the full bibliography for the source you are citing.

Citing more than three authors? The in-text citation you only include the first author’s name and “et al.”.

Works Cited/Reference List

An APA style paper includes a works cited page (Reference List) that lists all of the sources cited, in alphabetical order. 

Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list.

Citation Examples

Book

Rouselle, D. (2010). Jacques Lacan and American sociology: Be wary of the image. Palgrave Macmillan. 

Book Chapter 

Downey D.B., Yoon A., Martin E. (2018). Schools and inequality: Implications from seasons comparison research. In Schneider, B. (Ed). Handbook of the sociology of education in the 21st century (pp. 55-70). Springer International. 

Dataset

National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Fast Response Survey System (FRSS): Teachers' use of educational technology in U.S. public schools, 2009 (ICPSR 35531; Version V3) [Data set and code book]. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35531.v3

Pew Research Center. (2018). American trends panel Wave 26 [Data set]. https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/dataset/american-trends-panel-wave-26/ 

eBook

Author, A or Editor, B or Name of Group. (year). Title of book (2nd ed.). Publisher Name. DOI/URL

Journal Article 

Hunyang Yu, & Wenya Guo. (2018). Individualized teaching for college students’ ideological and political education based on the concept of cognitive science. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 18(6), 3284–3293. https://doi.org/12738/estp.2018.6.232

Newspaper Article 

Tugend, A. Intersectionality in the workplace. (2018, October 1). The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/

YouTube Video

Author, A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. www.youtube.com/xxx

Citing Legal Resources in APA

In general, the APA Manual only covers a portion of all the legal materials you will cite. Starting on page 216 of the 6th edition manual, you have reference examples of court cases/decisions, federal statues, etc. For any other legal document, such as bills or treaties, you should refer to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (19th edition). You can also explore the Tulane University Law School Legal Citation Guide that focuses on the Bluebook Citation Manual.

Finding the actual statute number, sections, and amended U.S.C. numbers are not easy. Check out the APA Style Blog’s page on how to do just that!

Examples if you are citing the actual, legal document and NOT the website:

Court Case

Party v. Party, Legal Citation (Court abbreviation year)

Christopher S. v. Stanislaus County Office of Education,384 F.3d 1205 (9th Cir., 2004)

In-text reference: (Party v. Party, year)

Statutes

Name of law, Pub.L. ##-##, volume Stat. page, codified as amended at title U.S.C. § section #.

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974,Pub. L. 93-247, 88 Stat. 4, codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. §§5101–5106.

In-text reference: (Name of Law)