Here are some of the standard components of scholarly articles and the questions they answer.
WHAT IS THIS ARTICLE ABOUT?
Abstract: Usually a paragraph which very briefly summarizes the whole article.
Introduction: Outlines the topic of the article and discusses what the article contributes to existing knowledge on the topic.
WHAT DO WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC AND WHAT IS LEFT TO DISCOVER?
Literature review: Reviews the existing research and theory on the topic. (Sometimes included in the introduction.) Points out what questions remain and relates the research presented in the rest of the article to the existing literature. Tells us what the hypotheses were at the beginning of the project.
HOW DID THE AUTHOR DO THE RESEARCH?
Methods and data: Discussion of the methods used and the resulting data.
WHAT DID THE AUTHOR FIND AND HOW DID THEY FIND IT?
Analysis and Results: Reveals the kind of analysis that was conducted on the data and what the results are.
WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
Discussion and Conclusion: Considers what the results mean and how the study contributes to existing knowledge. The research questions and hypotheses are answered. Places the research in a larger context, explaining its importance and suggesting future research.
WHY ARE THEY CITING THEIR SOURCES?
References: the sources used by the author in order to support their thesis. In order to be scholarly, the author must show their research.