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How to Cite Business & Economics Databases

Best Practices in Citing Databases in APA 7th Edition

APA Citation Examples for Business Databases


You generally use Bizminer to create numerical figures for industries in specific locations.  While Bizminer refers to its content as "reports," I believe the information should be cited as a [Data set].  

Bizminer. (2020, June).  Industry market report: Home centers Columbus, OH metro area. [Data set].


Bizminer. (2020, June). Industry financial report: Home centers Akron, OH metro area (Sales class: Small < $5M). [Data set].

D&B Hoovers

If you use company information (sales, financial information, history, etc.) from  D&B Hoovers, cite as [Company profile].

D&B Hoovers. (n.d.). The Home Depot Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved October 12, 2020, from


If you build a list of companies or executives in D&B Hoovers, I suggest you cite the list you create with brackets.  Be as descriptive as possible as this can help the reader replicate the search to create the same list. 

D&B Hoovers (n.d.). [List of home improvement stores with more than 100 employees in Ohio]. Retrieved October 12, 2020, from


D&B Hoovers also contains content that lists other organizations or people as the author or creator of the source.  Individual news articles and analyst reports should be cited with the original citation information:

Basham, S & Friedman, N. (2020, August 19). 2Q20 review: Outstanding quarter, but likely will trail Lowe's again. Wedbush Securities Inc. [Analyst report]. D&B Hoovers.

First Research

First Research has multiple pages within a report.  However, unless you just cite one section a few times, I suggest just citing the whole report.  Also, First Research does not provide a person as an author, but does provide a full date of publication. 

First Research. (2020, August 24). Breweries. [Industry report].


If you choose to cite specific sections of the report, I suggest you cite as shown below.

First Research. (2020, August 24). Breweries: Business challenges. [Industry report].


IBISWorld reports typically have an analyst listed as the author.  I have used  [Industry report] to describe the format. 

O'Connor, C. (2020, June).  US industry (NAICS) report 44411:
Home improvement stores in the U.S. [Industry report].  IBISWorld.

Mergent Intellect

If you use information from Mergent Intellect for a specific company, format the citation as a [Company profile].

Mergent Intellect. (n.d.) Blue Eagle Music [Company profile].  Retrieved October 12, 2020, from


If you create a list of companies in Mergent Intellect, describe the search you used to create the list in brackets.  

Mergent Intellect (n.d.). [List of music instrument and supplies stores( NAICS code 45114 )in Nashville, TN metro area ]. Retrieved October 12, 2020, from

Mergent Online

To cite information from a company profile, use [Company profile] and Mergent Online as the author. Note that no date is providde, so you will need to use the "Retrieved from" date. 

Mergent Online.(n.d.) Toyota Motor Corporation. [Company profile]. Retrieved October 14, 2020 from


If you use Mergent Online to create company comparison tables, cite the table that you create with the description in brackets. 

Mergent Online.(n.d.). [Company comparison report of Toyota Motor Corporation and competitors]. Retrieved October 14, 2020 from


Mergent also contains stock/analyst/equity reports from multiple sources.  It's important to try to cite the original source or author, which may not actually be Mergent Online.  In the case below, I list Mergent Online as the database because the author is different.  

Global Data. (2020, October). Toyota Motor Corp (7203) financial and strategic SWOT analysis review. [Analyst report]. Mergent Online.


Reports from Mintel will usually list a person as the author and have a publication date.  Also, the month and year is usually included in the title.  While it may look weird to have the date listed twice in the citation, and even more strange to have the dashes in the title,  I believe the citation is thorough and correct.    Note that I have used [Market report] to describe the report and have included the database name. 

Hennigan, Claire. (2020, September 24). Perceptions of beauty across generations: Incl impact  of COVID-19 - US - September 2020. [Market report]. Mintel.


You can also use Mintel to create tables and graphs using the Interactive Databook.  These should be cited as [Data set].  Because the databook is not attribute to a person as the author, I cited Mintel as the author.  Note that while the title is a bit complicated and awkward, it does give the reader a clear idea where to find the data. 

Mintel. (2020, September). Perceptions of beauty across generations: Incl impact of COVID-19 - US - September 2020 (Interactive satabook: Beauty routine demographics). [Data set].


Passport has many types of reports and data available, and I have included the most common options below.  If you cite a different type of information, just try to follow the formats below and be as consistent as possible.  Note that for cases where the database is the author, I suggest using Euromonitor International as the author, then cite the database name (Passport) after the report. 

Is you cite a consumer industry report as shown below,  note that Passport calls these either "country reports" or "industry reports."  I have chosen to describe them all as [Industry report].  

Euromonitor International. (2020, February). Footwear in the Czech Republic. [Industry report]. Passport.


For the broader (less industry focus) reports, I chose to describe these as [Country report].

Euromonitor International. (2020, January 20). Business dynamics: Bangladesh. [Country report]. Passport.


You can also create data tables with Passport for company shares, brand shares, economic statistics, etc.   You will cite this as [Data set].  Note that there isn't a date for the data, so you must use the Retrieved date. I also added the countries analyzed in the data set in parethesis.  

Euromonitor International. (n.d.). Market sizes: footwear (Czech Republic, Hungary, and Germany). [Data set]. Passport. Retrieved October 14, 2020 from


To cite information from Privco, use the [Company profile] format and cite Privco as the author.  Note that no date is provides, so you will need to use the "Retrieved from" date.  

Privco. (n.d.)  Valve Corporation. [Company profile]. Retrieved November 20, 2020 from  

Simmons Insights

The most commons uses of Simmons Insights are to create Demographic Profile of consumers of a particular product or to build a Cross Tab of data.

If you use Simmons to create a demographic profile, I suggest using [Data set] as the format, since "Demographic Profile" is in the title.   The title of the data variable can be a bit convoluted, so just do the best that you can.  

MRI Simmons. (n.d.) Demographic profile: Cold cereals- brnds eaten lst 7 days MO- Kellogg's Frosted Flakes (regular). Fall 2017 Adult Study 06-month. [Data set].


If you cite a cross tab, there's really no ideal way to cite every variable that you use in the cross tab.  I suggest just being as descriptive as possible without going overboard.  Since the Cross Tab is the actual format, I put the entire description in brackets.  For example, to cite the cross tab data used in my "How to Read Cross Tabs" example, I might do as follows:

MRI Simmons. (n.d.) [Cross tab of professional sports interest and family sit-down restaurants. Fall 2017 Adult Study 06-month].


SimplyAnalytics has some tips to cite the data on their help pages.  

I hope to post my own examples as soon as I can. --Chad

Sport Market Analytics

Coming Soon!


Statista is fairly straightforward to cite as the database has a citation built in.  Use the blue quotations button to generate the citation.  

Click the quotation button in Statista to cite.


Note that Statista uses the "Retrieved from date" since the statistics might be updated at a later date. Statista will also use the [Graph] as a custom format.

Morning Consult. (May 19, 2020). Level of interest in eSports in the United States as of May 2020 [Graph]. In Statista. Retrieved November 20, 2020, from