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Electrical Engineering


Commonly used Styles

Helpful Tools

Examples - IEEE Reference Style

Electronic Journal Article

J. K. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year.
M. Karam, F. A. Russo, and D. I. Fels, "Designing the model human cochlea: An ambient crossmodal audio-tactile display." IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 160-169. 2009.


Conference Paper

J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State (if given), year, pp. xxx-xxx.
R. L. Barnett and J. B. Glauber, "Automotive lifts - Unrestrained v. restrained swing arms," in Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 2009, IMECE2009, 2010, pp. 373-387.



Title of Standard, Standard number, date.
Aircraft Ground Equipment - Basic Requirements - Part 1: General Design Requirements, ISO 6966-1, 2005.



J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month day, year.
S. Spannhake, R. Henkel, and J. Gewinner, "Electronic safety system for escalators," U.S. Patent 6 267 219, July 31, 2001.



It is a part of scholarly research to include a bibliography, works cited, or reference list as part of your paper, poster, or presentation. A bibliography is a list of print and/or electronic resources that you used information from either by direct quote or indirect quote i.e., paraphrase or that you reproduced in your work (e.g., a chart from another source).

Properly cite your information by:

  • Clearly identifying all sources used to obtain information (author and work) and
  • Precisely stating where (on which page or electronic location) or under which circumstances (personal interview, e-mail) you obtained the information.

The mechanics of citing are:

  1. Determine what you need to cite. Is it a print or electronic journal article? Should you cite the entire book or just a book chapter?
  2. Use the citation style recommended by your professor or what is commonly used in your discipline. Within the citation style guide find the formula for the type of item you have. You may have to determine if you are using a numbering scheme or author-date.
  3. Locate the necessary information from the item. Essential information is:
    1. Author(s) and maybe editor(s),
    2. Title(s) including the article or paper title and/or the title of the journal, book, or conference proceeding,
    3. Source of the information such as the publisher, publication city, or URL, and
    4. Numbers including copyright year, volume, issue, page numbers, or date accessed.
  4. Plug the information from the item into the formula. See examples for a complete citation.


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Subjects: Engineering