Memory as a political commodity becomes highly disposable in the marketplace of insistent history. Theorists of social memory have identified the conditions under which it is culturally reproduced, specifying the crucial roles played by legitimized agents of memory. The effects of violence on memory are discussed.
"This article considers the nature of collusion between the British state and loyalist paramilitary organisations during the conflict in Northern Ireland in the context of British counterinsurgency theory and practices in prior colonial campaigns. "
It is not possible to provide estimates for the number of deaths in custody, by suicide, through torture, or through acts of brutality or neglect as a direct consequence ofthe military offensives in Afghanistan and Iraq. . . . Often ignored in the debate over the revealed "excesses" of Guantanamo, Abu Ghraib, Camp Cropper, Bagram, and other jails, however, is the stark reality that such practices were not aberrations, but extensions of custom and practice institutionalized within prisons in the U.S., the U.K., and Australia.
This paper examines these questions and proposes that a confluence of primary factors and secondary circumstances – many of which are common to liberal, democratic states – perpetuated the emergency measures beyond their intended life.
In societies experiencing internal strife the state has an array of methods available to it to control and manage disorder. The use of
force is one such method. Understanding how lethal force fits into the broader picture of conflict control strategies is critical to understanding its significance both to the state and the communities who experienced its use.