CAMEO : Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online has several parts that are useful to us.
Note: You may get a warning that this isn't a secure site; it's OK to "proceed."
Several standards organizations define and measure specifications for things in our world. EX: a light bulb fits in a lamp socket because the size is standardized.
Applied to textiles, this means a standards group will define what constitutes a kind of fiber,or sell a testing protocol for a fiber characteristic (burn tests, for example).
Search these for fiber names to discover usable publications. If we don't own it, sometimes an abstract will help.